The 31st INTERNATIONAL
Pipeline Pigging & Integrity Management Conference
plus Training Courses and Exhibition
George R. Brown Convention Center and the Marriott Marquis Hotel
February 18-21, 2019

Course H
Managing Cracking and Seam Weld Anomalies in Pipelines

also see Course D

Day 1
  7:30am Registration & coffee
  8:00am-5:00pm Course
Day 2
  8:00am-5:00pm Course

 

Various forms of cracks, crack-like indications and seam weld anomalies are known to be present on pipelines, which could become a safety concern to their safe operation. The most typical forms of cracking and seam weld anomalies are environmentally, manufacturing-or operational related, such as stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatigue cracking, hydrogen-induced cracking, hook crack-lie, lack of fusion and cold welds.

This course will provide an integrated, data-driven approach for addressing these integrity threats. It covers in greater depth the formation and conditions that drive their growth until they become unstable, leading to leaks or ruptures. The appropriate assessment methods such as ILI tools, pressure testing and direct assessments will be reviewed as well as traditional and current engineering Fracture Mechanics based methods for determining crack severity for response and remediation. Each attendee will receive a complimentary Excel based crack assessment calculator which will be demonstrated in class using practical case studies.

Course I gives an overview of fracture principles and analysis and then concentrates on inspection, assessment and repair options. Course E is an in-depth review of fracture characteristics and behavior, modeling, and analysis methods.

Who Should Attend

  • Pipeline engineers and maintenance personnel who are involved or responsible for the maintenance, inspection, assessments and repair of pipeline systems.
  • Non-Destructive Inspection personnel who wish to acquire or increase their knowledge of crack formation and growth on pipelines

What Will Be Learned

On completion of the course, the student will understand what factors contribute to the formation and growth of crack‐like features and seam-weld anomalies on pipelines. In addition, participants will be able to gather and analyze the type and extent of cracking found, key operational parameters, pipe material properties, full-scale testing data, and ILI crack tool data, and to apply industry-recognized engineering methods for developing and recommending appropriate remedial action.

Documentation

Participants will receive a full set of course slides and notes in print and electronic form, in color throughout, as well as an Excel-based tool for calculating failure pressure due to the presence of cracks.

Lecturer

Sergio Limón has worked in the oil & gas pipeline industry for more than 15 years with emphasis on pipeline integrity threat analysis and response. He was employed for 10 years with a large owner and operator of natural gas gathering, processing and transportation services. He led for six years the Asset Integrity group for the western division responsible for the analysis, response and remediation of integrity threats as well as the implementation of the Gas Integrity Management Program. Sergio holds B Sc. and M Sc. degrees in Mechanical Engineering with emphasis in fracture mechanics and materials from the University of Utah. He is the founder of Elevara Partners.

CEUs

On completion of the course, participants will be awarded 1.4 CEUs.

Course Program


  1. Characteristics and Behavior of Cracks and Seam Weld Anomalies Found in Pipelines
    • A review of line pipe making, with emphasis on vintage ERW, Flash and Direct Current Welded pipelines
    • Environmentally-Assisted Cracking (SCC, corrosion fatigue, hydrogen induced, sulfide stress cracking, selective seam corrosion)
    • Manufacturing-Related Anomalies (lack of fusion, cold welds, stitching, and hook crack-like features)
    • A description of factors that drive their stable growth leading to failures
    • Review of current industry standards and recommended practices related to addressing cracking and seam weld integrity: ASME, API, CSA, and NACE
    • A review of PHMSA’s final Liquids rule published on January 2017 and NPRM for Gas transmission and gathering lines published on April 2016
  2. Foundations of Engineering Fracture Mechanics
    • Engineering and material science foundations of Fracture Mechanics as applied to pipeline assessments
    • The concept of Stress Intensity Factor-K describing the failure stress as a function of crack size and material properties
    • The influence of cracks and seam weld anomalies on the fracture modes of pipelines and the relationship of failure stress to fracture toughness
    • Fracture Toughness testing (Charpy V-Notch & DWTT and Ductile-to-Brittle transition curve, and fracture mechanics based testing (JIC, KIC, J-R)
  3. Performing Engineering Analyses of Cracks and Seam Weld Anomalies
    • What to look for in any engineering method for determining the failure pressure of pipelines in the presence of cracks and seam weld anomalies
    • Review NG-18 Equation, Newman-Raju Equation, API-579, and CorLAS
      • In class demonstration of the evaluation of cracks and seam weld anomalies severity for response and remediation
    • Pressure cycle fatigue crack growth analysis and remaining safe life assessments
      • In class demonstration and sensitivity analysis review of the effects of varying key inputs on the final fatigue life
      • Review of pressure cycle counting methods in ASTM E-1049, such as Rainflow method
  4. Integrity Assessments
    • Factors to consider when evaluating and deciding on assessment methods
    • Hydrostatic Testing: setting up appropriate pressure test targets, hold times, the role of spike testing and determination of appropriate re-test intervals
    • In-line Inspection: description of the UT, EMAT and C-MFL technologies, their performance, industry experience, and development of response criteria
    • Direct Assessment methods: review and applicability of NACE SP0204 for SCCDA and CSA Z662 & CEPA Condition Monitoring for SCC
  5. In-Ditch Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods and Repairing Cracks
    • Review of current NDE methods and technologies
    • In-class demonstration of NDE technologies and techniques
    • Developing an NDE protocol of evaluating cracks and SWAs in the field
    • Review of repairs options in the industry: ASME B31.4 & B31.8 and PCC-2, API, PRCI Repair Manual, and applicable US and Canadian regulations
    • The basis for sleeve repairs, Type A and B sleeve repair systems
    • Guidelines for buffing out cracks, linear indications and seam weld anomalies
    • Review repair case studies: what would you recommend for repair?
  6. Cracking & Seam Weld Integrity Management Strategies
    • A framework for an integrated strategy, from the design and manufacturing of pipelines to performing periodic assessments to the to the incorporation of the company’s core values and consideration of impacts business goals
    • Review of case studies: How would you manage the threat of cracking or seam weld anomalies?

 

It will be necessary to bring a laptop to this course.


 Organized by:

Clarion Technical Conferences     Tiratsoo Technical