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Assessing Cracking and Seam Weld Anomalies in Pipelines
Led by Sergio Limón
November 15-16, 2023 | PRCI’s Technology Development Center | Houston

Featuring hands-on technology demonstrations

Register before November 1, 2023 and save $200!

Day 1:  9am-5pm CDT
Day 2:  9am-5pm CDT

Course Syllabus

Day 1

  1. Characteristics and Behavior of Cracks and Long Seam Weld Anomalies in Pipelines
    • A review of line pipe making, with emphasis on vintage ERW, Flash and Direct Current Welded pipelines
    • The formation and growth of
      • Environmentally Assisted Cracking: SCC axial & circumferential, hydrogen induced cracking, corrosion fatigue cracking, sulfide stress cracking, and selective seam corrosion
      • Manufacturing Related Imperfections: lack of fusion, cold welds, stitching, and hook crack-like features
      • Operationally Driven Cracking: fatigue cracks
    • Difference between cracks and long seam weld anomalies
    • PHMSA requirements for evaluating pipelines with cracks and seam weld defects
      • Old and new regulations in Parts 192 and 195
    • Review of current industry standards and recommended practices related to addressing cracking and seam weld integrity
      • ASME B31.8S and API 1176 and 1160
    • Hands-on demonstration of pipeline samples with cracks and seam weld defects
  1. Foundations of Engineering Fracture Mechanics 
    • The fracture process of pipelines with cracks or seam weld anomalies
      • Fracture initiation, stable propagation, and fracture arrest or final fracture
    • Fracture behavior: brittle, ductile and mix-mode
    • Basic principles underlining Liner Elastic and Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics and their applications to pipelines
    • The concept of Stress Intensity Factor describing the relationship of failure stress as a function of crack size and material properties
    • Fracture toughness testing
      • Impact Charpy V-Notch and its relation to Ductile-to-Brittle transition curve
      • Fracture mechanics-based toughness testing: Kc, Jc, CTOD and J-R crack growth resistance curve
      • Correlation of CVN to K, J and CTOD
  1. Performing Failure Pressure Calculations
    • What to look for in any engineering method for determining the failure pressure of pipelines in the presence of cracks or seam weld anomalies
    • Review of the following engineering methods: NG-18 Equation, Newman-Raju Equation, CorLAS, API 579-1/ASME FFS-1, and PRCI MAT-8
      • Review of published studies comparing the accuracy of these methods
      • Which one is more accurate or conservative?
    • Effects of fracture toughness on failure pressure predictions
    • In class demonstration of an Excel failure stress analysis calculator
    • A review of crack prioritization and severity rankings by ASME and CEPA
    • Crack length interlinking conditions of neighboring crack features by CEPA and API 579
    • SCC growth estimation and industry reported growth rates

Day 2

  1. Performing Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis
    • Common concepts in fatigue analysis and stages of fatigue and fatigue life
    • Steps for performing a fatigue crack growth analysis and remaining life calculation
      • Setting initial cracks sizes, evaluating cyclic pressure data, choosing material properties, selecting a fatigue crack growth model and deciding on one the termination point of the fatigue analysis (failure condition)
    • Review of fatigue crack growth models: Paris-Erdogan, Walker, Forman, NASGRO and choosing an appropriate set of C & m fatigue parameters
    • Simplifying variable amplitude cyclic pressure data by means of the rainflow counting methods (ASTM E1049) and assessing the severity of cyclic pressures
    • Performing sensitivity analysis of the final calculated fatigue life
    • The use of safety factor on the predicted final fatigue life
    • In class demonstration of case studies and the analysis of cyclic pressures
  1. Integrity Assessments for Addressing Cracks and Long Seam Weld Anomalies
    • Factors to consider when evaluating and deciding on assessment methods
    • Hydrostatic Testing: setting up appropriate pressure test targets, hold times, the role of spike testing and determination of appropriate re-test intervals
    • In-line Inspection: description of the UT, EMAT and C-MFL technologies, their performance, industry experience, and development of response criteria
    • Direct Assessment methods: review and applicability of NACE SP0204 for SCCDA and CSA Z662 & CEPA Condition Monitoring for SCC
  1. In-Ditch Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE)
    • Pipeline coating removal and surface preparation techniques
    • Review of most widely used NDE methods and technologies
      • Magnetic particle inspection
      • Conventional UT shearwave
      • Phased array UT (PAUT)
      • Total Focusing Method (TFM)
      • Inverse Wave Field Extrapolation (IWEX)
      • Eddy Current-based
      • Including emerging technologies
    • NDE personnel qualifications, what should they be for pipeline applications?
    • Present an NDE protocol framework for field evaluations and characterization of cracks and long seam weld anomalies
    • Hands-on demonstration of various NDE methods and technologies commonly used for crack and seam weld detection and sizing
    • Review of repairs options in the industry: ASME B31.8 & B31.4 and PRCI Repair Manual

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Clarion Technical Conferences